Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

3‑Aminopropyl-triethoxysilane-Functionalized Tannin-Rich Grape Biomass for the Adsorption of Methyl Orange Dye: Synthesis, Characterization, and the Adsorption Mechanism

Cavalcante, Edmo H. M.; Candido, Iuri C. M.; de Oliveira, Helinando P.; Barreto Silveira, Kamilla; de Souza Álvares, Thiago Víctor; Lima, Eder C.; Thyrel, Mikael; Larsson, Sylvia; Simões Dos Reis, Glaydson


A biomass amino silica-functionalized material was successfully prepared by a simple sol–gel method. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was added to a tannin-rich grape residue to improve its physicochemical properties and enhance the adsorption performance. The APTES functionalization led to significant changes in the material’s characteristics. The functionalized material was efficiently applied in the removal of methyl orange (MO) due to its unique characteristics, such as an abundance of functional groups on its surface. The adsorption process suggests that the electrostatic interactions were the main acting mechanism of the MO dye removal, although other interactions can also take place. The functionalized biomass achieved a very high MO dye maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of 361.8 mg g–1. The temperature positively affected the MO removal, and the thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of MO onto APTES-functionalized biomass was spontaneous and endothermic, and enthalpy is driven in the physisorption mode. The regeneration performance revealed that the APTES-functionalized biomass material could be easily recycled and reused by maintaining very good performance even after five cycles. The adsorbent material was also employed to treat two simulated dye house effluents, which showed 48% removal. At last, the APTES biomass-based material may find significant applications as a multifunctional adsorbent and can be used further to separate pollutants from wastewater.


Adsorption; Biomass; Biomaterials; Dyes and pigments; Kinetic modeling

Published in

ACS Omega
2022, number: 22, pages: 18997–19009

Authors' information

Cavalcante, Edmo H. M.
Federal University of the São Francisco Valley (UNIVASF)
Candido, Iuri C. M.
Federal University of the São Francisco Valley (UNIVASF)
de Oliveira, Helinando P.
Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco
Barreto Silveira, Kamilla
Federal University of the São Francisco Valley (UNIVASF)
de Souza Álvares, Thiago Víctor
Federal University of the São Francisco Valley (UNIVASF)
Lima, Eder C.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

UKÄ Subject classification

Bio Materials

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)