Plasma atropine concentrations associated with decreased intestinal motility in horsesEkstrand, Carl; Michanek, Peter; Gehring, Ronette; Sundell, Anna; Kallse, Annika; Hedeland, Mikael; Strom, Lena;
IntroductionAtropine is an essential part of the treatment protocol for equine uveitis. Topical atropine administration has been associated with decreased intestinal motility and abdominal pain in horses. Experimental studies have indicated that frequent dosing is associated with a higher risk than dosing every 6 h. Unfortunately, no quantitative pharmacodynamic data for inhibition of the equine gut are published. Materials and methodsEight standardbred horses were assigned to receive either atropine or saline (control) to be infused over 30 min in a two-treatment cross-over design. Atropine concentrations in plasma were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intestinal motility was measured using borborygmi frequency and electrointestinography (EIG). Experimental data were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model. The model was then used to simulate different dosing regimens. ResultsAtropine significantly decreased borborygmi response and EIG response. Six horses developed clinical signs of abdominal pain. The pharmacokinetic typical values were 0.31, 1.38, 0.69, and 1.95 L/kg center dot h for the volumes of the central, the highly perfused, the scarcely perfused compartments, and the total body clearance, respectively. The pharmacodynamic typical values were 0.31 mu g/L and 0.6 and 207 nV(2)7 cpm for the plasma concentration at 50% of the maximum response and the maximum response and the baseline of cecal EIG response, respectively. Six different dosing regimens of topical atropine sulfate to the eye (0.4 and 1 mg every hour, every 3 h, and every 6 h) were simulated. ConclusionThe IV PK/PD data coupled with simulations predict that administration of 1 mg of topical atropine sulfate administered to the eye every hour or every 3 h will lead to atropine accumulation in plasma and decreased intestinal myoelectric activity. Administration every 6 h predicted a safe dosing regimen in full-sized horses. Clinical studies would be valuable to confirm the conclusions. For smaller equids and horses put at risk for colic due to othercauses, droplet bottles that deliver 40 mu l of 1% atropine sulfate per drop or less may be used to lower the risk further.
atropine sulfate; colic; equine; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics
Published inFrontiers in Veterinary Science 2022, volume: 9, article number: 951300
Publisher: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
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