Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

The economic costs, management and regulation of biological invasions in the Nordic countries

Kourantidou, Melina; Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; Haubrock, Phillip J.; Cuthbert, Ross N.; Angulo, Elena; Ahonen, Inkeri; Cleary, Michelle; Falk-Andersson, Jannike; Granhag, Lena; Gislason, Sindri; Kaiser, Brooks; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Lange, Henrik; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Magnussen, Kristin; Navrud, Stale; Nummi, Petri; Oficialdegui, Francisco J.; Ramula, Satu; Ryttari, Terhi;
Show more authors


A collective understanding of economic impacts and in particular of monetary costs of biological invasions is lacking for the Nordic region. This paper synthesizes findings from the literature on costs of invasions in the Nordic countries together with expert elicitation. The analysis of cost data has been made possible through the InvaCost database, a globally open repository of monetary costs that allows for the use of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic descriptors facilitating a better understanding of how costs are distributed. The total reported costs of invasive species across the Nordic countries were estimated at $8.35 billion (in 2017 US$ values) with damage costs significantly outweighing management costs. Norway incurred the highest costs ($3.23 billion), followed by Denmark ($2.20 billion), Sweden ($1.45 billion), Finland ($1.11 billion) and Iceland ($25.45 million). Costs from invasions in the Nordics appear to be largely underestimated. We conclude by highlighting such knowledge gaps, including gaps in policies and regulation stemming from expert judgment as well as avenues for an improved understanding of invasion costs and needs for future research.


Invasive species; Economic impact; Nordic countries; InvaCost; Knowledge gaps

Published in

Journal of Environmental Management
2022, volume: 324, article number: 116374

Authors' information

Kourantidou, Melina
University of Southern Denmark
Kourantidou, Melina
Hellenic Centre for Marine Research
Verbrugge, Laura N. H.
Aalto University
Verbrugge, Laura N. H.
University of Helsinki
Haubrock, Phillip J.
Nat Hist Museum Frankfurt
Haubrock, Phillip J.
Senckenberg Gesellschaft fur Naturforschung (SGN)
Haubrock, Phillip J.
University of South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice
Cuthbert, Ross N.
Queens University Belfast
Angulo, Elena
Angulo, Elena
CSIC - Estacion Biologica de Donana (EBD)
Ahonen, Inkeri
Swedish Environm Protect Agcy
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre
Falk-Andersson, Jannike
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)
Granhag, Lena
Chalmers University of Technology
Gislason, Sindri
Southwest Iceland Nat Res Ctr
Kaiser, Brooks
University of Southern Denmark
Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa
Finnish Environment Institute
Lange, Henrik
Swedish Environm Protect Agcy
Lehtiniemi, Maiju
Finnish Environment Institute
Magnussen, Kristin
Menon Econ
Show more authors

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)