Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022
Timing of Vertical Head, Withers and Pelvis Movements Relative to the Footfalls in Different Equine Gaits and BreedsRhodin, Marie; Smit, Ineke H.; Persson-Sjodin, Emma; Pfau, Thilo; Gunnarsson, Vikingur; Bjornsdottir, Sigridur; Zetterberg, Ebba; Clayton, Hilary M.; Hobbs, Sarah J.; Braganca, Filipe Serra; Hernlund, Elin
AbstractSimple Summary Movement symmetry of the head and pelvis are used to measure lameness in horses in trot. Although head, pelvis and limb movements have been described, less is known about the temporal relationships between them. This information is needed to understand how the movements change with lameness. This is particularly relevant in gaited horses, such as the Icelandic horse that perform gaits such as tolt and pace, which are challenging to evaluate. This study used inertial measurement units to investigate head, withers and pelvis motion relative to limb movements in Icelandic, Warmblood and Iberian horses. Limb movements, together with vertical movements and lowest/highest positions of the head, withers and pelvis were calculated, and the relative timing of the events was compared across breeds. Additionally, data for tolt and pace were collected and evaluated in ridden Icelandic horses. For all gaits except walk and pace, the lowest/highest positions of the head/withers/pelvis were closely temporally related to midstance and hoof-off, respectively. Pelvic and withers total range of motion differed between all breeds. The Icelandic horses showed shorter stride duration and smaller movements of the upper body than the other breeds at trot, which may explain why lameness evaluation in this breed is challenging. Knowledge of vertical motion patterns of the axial body segments is a prerequisite for the development of algorithms used in automated detection of lameness. To date, the focus has been on the trot. This study investigates the temporal synchronization between vertical motion of the axial body segments with limb kinematic events in walk and trot across three popular types of sport horses (19 Warmbloods, 23 Iberians, 26 Icelandics) that are known to have different stride kinematics, and it presents novel data describing vertical motion of the axial body segments in tolting and pacing Icelandic horses. Inertial measurement unit sensors recorded limb kinematics, vertical motion of the axial body at all symmetrical gaits that the horse could perform (walk, trot, tolt, pace). Limb kinematics, vertical range of motion and lowest/highest positions of the head, withers and pelvis were calculated. For all gaits except walk and pace, lowest/highest positions of the pelvis and withers were found to be closely related temporally to midstance and start of suspension of the hind/fore quarter, respectively. There were differences in pelvic/withers range of motion between all breeds where the Icelandic horses showed the smallest motion, which may explain why lameness evaluation in this breed is challenging.
Keywordsinertial measurement units; gait; biomechanics; objective motion analysis; lameness
2022, volume: 12, number: 21, article number: 3053
Smit, Ineke H.
University of Calgary
Gunnarsson, Vikingur Th
Agricultural University of Iceland (LBHI)
Clayton, Hilary M.
Sport Horse Science
Hobbs, Sarah J.
University of Central Lancashire
Braganca, Filipe Serra
UKÄ Subject classification
Animal and Dairy Science
URI (permanent link to this page)