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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Environmental and cultivar variability in composition, content and biological activity of phenolic acids and alkylresorcinols of winter wheat grains from a multi-site field trial across Europe

Kowalska, Iwona; Moldoch, Jaroslaw; Pawelec, Sylwia; Podolska, Grazyna; von Cossel, Moritz; Derycke, Veerle; Haesaert, Geert; Lana, Marcos A.; da Silva Lopes, Marta; Riche, Andrew B.; Stuetzel, Hartmut; Hackett, Richie; Oleszek, Wieslaw


Different factors such as the genotype, environmental conditions, temperature stress, solar radiation and others can influence the phytochemical status of plants. The concentration of phenolic acids and alkylresorciols (ARs) as well as their chemical composition and biological activity have been determined in twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at eight European locations. This was the first winter wheat multi-location field trial of the European Consortium for Open Field Experimentation (ECOFE). Extracts from grain were analyzed using a UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS system (phenolic acids), UPLC-PDA-MS/MS (alkylresorcinols) and TLC-DPPH center dot test with ImageJ program (antiradical activity). The phenolic acid profile consisted of five hydroxybenzoic acid and four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, among which ferulic and sinapic acids were predominated. The ARs profile consisted of nine AR derivatives, among which 5-n-heneicosylresorcinol (C21:0) and 5-n-nonadecanylresorcinol (C19:0) were predominated. Our study showed significant differences in phenolic acids and AR content between wheat cultivars, as well as between locations. We observed a positive correlation between the biological activity of extracts and the total amount of phenolic acids and ARs. Two cultivars, Chambo and Julius (average of all sites) and samples from the Spanish site (average of all cultivars) showed the highest content and composition of nutritional substances.


Winter wheat; Multi-location trial; UPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS; Natural products

Published in

Journal of Cereal Science
2022, Volume: 107, article number: 103527

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Analytical Chemistry
    Food Science

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