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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Facile Synthesis of Sustainable Activated Biochars with Different Pore Structures as Efficient Additive-Carbon-Free Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries

dos Reis, Glaydson Simoes; Mayandi Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar; Duarte Cardenas, Angelica; Larsson, Sylvia H.; Thyrel, Mikael; Lassi, Ulla; Garcia-Alvarado, Flaviano


The present work elucidates facile one-pot synthesis from biomass forestry waste (Norway spruce bark) and its chemical activation yielding high specific surface area (SBET) biochars as efficient lithium-and sodium-ion storage anodes. The chemically activated biochar using ZnCl2 (Biochar-1) produced a highly mesoporous carbon containing 96.1% mesopores in its structure as compared to only 56.1% mesoporosity from KOH-activated biochars (Biochar-2). The latter exhibited a lower degree of graphitization with disordered and defective carbon structures, while the former presented more formation of ordered graphite sheets in its structure as analyzed from Raman spectra. In addition, both biochars presented a high degree of functionalities on their surfaces but Biochar-1 presented a pyridinic-nitrogen group, which helps improve its electrochemical response. When tested electrochemically, Biochar-1 showed an excellent rate capability and the longest capacity retentions of 370 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 (100 cycles), 332.4 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1 (1000 cycles), and 319 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 after 5000 cycles, rendering as an alternative biomass anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Moreover, as a negative electrode in sodium-ion batteries, Biochar-1 delivered discharge capacities of 147.7 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1 (140 cycles) and 126 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 440 cycles.

Published in

ACS Omega
2022, volume: 7, number: 46, pages: 42570-42581

Authors' information

Mayandi Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar
San Pablo CEU University
Duarte Cardenas, Angelica
San Pablo CEU University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology
Lassi, Ulla
University of Jyvaskyla
Lassi, Ulla
University of Oulu
Garcia-Alvarado, Flaviano
San Pablo CEU University

UKÄ Subject classification

Materials Chemistry

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