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Doctoral thesis, 2023

Foodborne bacteria in the Cambodian meat value chain: Emphasis on the risk of Salmonella in chicken and pork from traditional markets to household consumption

Chea, Rortana


Foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus, pose a high risk to human health globally. Using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), this thesis estimated the risk of salmonellosis to Cambodian consumers eating contaminated chicken and pork salad. Chicken meat and pork samples (n=204 each) were collected from traditional markets in 25 provinces in Cambodia for analyses of Salmonella and also S. aureus. Practices used for preparing chicken and pork salads in 93 Cambodian households were surveyed and used to design an experiment assessing Salmonella cross-contamination from raw meat to ready-to-eat salad in four scenarios. Salmonella prevalence in chicken meat and pork was found at 42.6% (87/204) and 45.1% (92/204), respectively, with mean Salmonella concentration of 10.6 MPN/g in chicken meat and 11.1 MPN/g in pork. Salmonella contamination, salad consumption and dose-response were modelled using Monte Carlo simulations with 10,000 iterations. The QMRA model showed that the annual estimated risk of salmonellosis from consuming chicken salad, pork salad and both salads was 11.2% (90% CI 0.0-35.1), 4.0% (0.0-21.3) and 14.5% (0.0-33.5), respectively. Thus one in 10 chicken salad consumers in Cambodia was at risk of contracting salmonellosis annually. The factor with the most decisive influence on risk estimates was crosscontamination while preparing salad, followed by high prevalence of Salmonella on chicken meat/pork at the market. These results indicate a need to implement control measures, including monitoring the safety of retail chicken and pork at markets and improving hygiene in practices and equipment used during salad preparation in households.


animal-source food; traditional market; food safety; Salmonella; S. aureus; cross-contamination; hygiene practices; microbial risk assessment

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2023, number: 2023:8
ISBN: 978-91-8046-068-2, eISBN: 978-91-8046-069-9
Publisher: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

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