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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Marine monitoring in transition: On the verge of technological revolution?

Korpinen, Samuli; Kahlert, Maria; Kuosa, Harri; Mack, Leoni; Meissner, Kristian; Pitkanen, Heikki; Pyhalahti, Timo; Uusitalo, Laura


Efforts to renew marine ecosystem monitoring to include advanced technology and cost-effective methods have been repeatedly called for. The current environmental legislation in European Union (EU) requires also ecosystem monitoring beyond the scope of conventional methods and sampling strategies. Despite several studies showing the benefits of new methods, the progress to adopt the methods in national monitoring programmes under legal requirements has been slow. In this study, we have reviewed the current use of a set of methods in marine monitoring programmes under the EU marine strategy framework directive (MSFD), which calls for a holistic view of the marine environment and thus requires tens of monitoring parameters by different methods. Here we assess how widely the new methods are being adopted in the EU member states implementing the MSFD. Our results show a relatively high adoption rate for certain methods, while others are widely ignored. We compare the results also with the monitoring strategies of the four regional sea conventions. We argue that the adoption of methods in European and regional programmes may positively influence the national use of new methods.


ocean observation; sampling; monitoring methods; monitoring programs; EU marine strategy framework directive

Published in

Frontiers in marine science
2022, volume: 9, article number: 1066769

Authors' information

Korpinen, Samuli
Finnish Environment Institute
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Kuosa, Harri
Finnish Environment Institute
Mack, Leoni
University of Duisburg Essen
Meissner, Kristian
Finnish Environment Institute
Pitkanen, Heikki
Finnish Environment Institute
Pyhalahti, Timo
Finnish Environment Institute
Uusitalo, Laura
Finnish Environment Institute

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences
Fish and Aquacultural Science

Publication Identifiers


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