Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Testing the Efficiency of the Push-and-Pull Strategy during Severe Ips typographus Outbreak and Extreme Drought in Norway Spruce Stands

Jakus, Rastislav; Modlinger, Roman; Kaspar, Jaroslav; Majdak, Andrej; Blazenec, Miroslav; Korolyova, Nataliya; Jirosova, Anna; Schlyter, Fredrik


Protection of Norway spruce stands using anti-attractants was tested during an outbreak of bark beetles (Ips typographus) in their spring flight. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to test the proposed experimental design for tree protection; (2) to evaluate height-specific alternatives for dispenser installation on trees; and (3) to evaluate the efficiency of tree protection measures using anti-attractants under bark beetle infestation and drought stress. The experiment was conducted at the forest edges adjacent to recent clearcuts on 10 blocks in the eastern Czech Republic. Each block had three adjacent experimental areas, with 20 trees growing in two rows at the recently cut forest edge (10 trees per row). In front of a block in each of the three areas, four pheromone traps were installed. The treatment area was protected by anti-attractants. The second area served as a so-called switch area, where beetles from the treatment area, as the outflux redirected from the anti-attractant, would start new attacks if not caught in nearby pheromone traps. The third area was a control. We attached anti-attractant tube dispensers on each tree trunk of the treated area at two heights. The results suggest a redirecting effect of anti-attractants, pushing beetles into the switch area and causing subsequent attacks, which was greater than in areas containing treated trees. There was no difference between two dispensers placed at 1 and 8 m height and both at 1 m. A switching effect of beetle attacks occurring outside of the treated areas was observed. Mounting anti-attractant dispensers on tree trunks at one low position above the ground can be substantially less labour-intensive and as efficient as positioning them at two different heights. For areas affected by severe drought and extremely dense bark beetle populations, the use of anti-attractants did not prove effective.


verbenone; cineol; repellent; switch effect; tree protection; drought

Published in

2022, Volume: 13, number: 12, article number: 2175
Publisher: MDPI

    Associated SLU-program

    SLU Forest Damage Center

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Forest Science

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)