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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

PFAS in the Drinking Water Source: Analysis of the Contamination Levels, Origin and Emission Rates

Mussabek, Dauren; Soderman, Anna; Imura, Tomomi; Persson, Kenneth M.; Nakagawa, Kei; Ahrens, Lutz; Berndtsson, Ronny


Groundwater contamination caused by the use of the aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was investigated in southern Sweden. sigma PFAS concentrations in groundwater ranged between 20 and 20,000 ng L-1; PFAS composition was primarily represented by PFOS and PFHxS. The PFAS chain length was suggested to have an impact on the contaminant distribution and transport in the groundwater. PFAS profiling showed that the use of PFSAs- and PFCAs/FTSAs-based PFAS-AFFF can be a contributor to PFAS contamination of the drinking water source (groundwater). PFAS emission was connected to PFAS-AFFF use during the fire-training and fire-fighting equipment tests at the studied location. PFAS emission per individual fire training was (semi-quantitatively) estimated as [1.4 < 11.5 +/- 5.7 < 43.7 kg] (n = 20,000). The annual emission estimates varied as [11 < 401 +/- 233 < 1125 kg yr(-1)] (n = 1005) considering possible [2 < 35 +/- 20 < 96] individual fire-training sessions per year.


AFFF; PFAS; groundwater

Published in

2023, Volume: 15, number: 1, article number: 137
Publisher: MDPI

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG6 Clean water and sanitation

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources

    Publication identifier


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