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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Effects of charcoal ban on value chains and livelihoods in Kenyan coast-Stakeholders' perceptions

Wekesa, Chemuku; Mutta, Doris; Larwanou, Mahamane; Kowero, Godwin; Roos, Anders


Charcoal production in Africa has been seen by experts and authorities as a driver of forest degradation and deforestation; hence, governments are implementing measures to address this problem, including banning of charcoal production and trade. The effectiveness of these policies is uncertain, and stakeholders' reactions to, and perceptions of, the regulations are unknown. This study analyzed impacts, perceptions, and feedback reactions among stakeholders after the charcoal ban was introduced in Kenya in February 2018. The conceptual framework refers to the theories on sustainability transitions, and data was collected through key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), individual interviews, workshops, and surveys among value chain actors, organizations, and government agencies in Kwale, Taita Taveta and Mombasa counties in Kenya. Several economic, behavioral, attitudinal, and institutional consequences of the ban were identified. The policy showed characteristics of a negative feedback loop, meaning the policy may not succeed in reaching its purpose because of adverse side effects. Possible "policy mix" ap-proaches and advancement of alternative charcoal sources such as briquettes could in the long-term, promote sustainable development of the Kenyan charcoal sector hence supporting the policy implementation.


Bioenergy; Energy policy; Sustainability transition; Value chain

Published in

Environmental Development
2023, Volume: 45, article number: 100809

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG7 Affordable and clean energy
    SDG15 Life on land
    SDG1 No poverty

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Forest Science
    Renewable Bioenergy Research
    Business Administration

    Publication identifier


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