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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Practical guide to the diagnostics of ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes, liver fluke and lungworm infection: interpretation and usability of results

Sabatini, Gustavo Adolfo; Borges, Fernando de Almeida; Claerebout, Edwin; Gianechini, Leonor Sicalo; Hoeglund, Johan; Kaplan, Ray Matthew; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel; Mitchell, Sian; Rinaldi, Laura; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Steffan, Pedro; Woodgate, Robert


The diagnostics of ruminant parasites remains one of the cornerstones for parasite control best practices. Field veterinarians have several techniques at their disposal (fecal egg count, coproculture, FAMACHA((R)), plasma pepsinogen, ELISA-Ostertagia, ELISA-Fasciola, Baermann and ELISA-Lungworm) for the identification and/or quantification of gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworms and liver fluke infecting small ruminants and cattle. Each of these diagnostic tools has its own strengths and weaknesses and is more appropriate for a specific production operation and/or age of the animal (young and adults). This review focuses on the usability and interpretation of the results of these diagnostic tools. The most advanced technical information on sampling, storage, advantages and limitations of each tool for different types of production operations and animal categories is provided.


Ruminants; Parasite; Diagnostics; Fecal egg count; Coproculture; FAMACHA((R)); Plasma pepsinogen; ELISA-Ostertagia; ELISA-Fasciola; Baermann and ELISA-Lungworm

Published in

Parasites and Vectors
2023, volume: 16, number: 1, article number: 58
Publisher: BMC

Authors' information

Sabatini, Gustavo Adolfo
Boehringer Ingelheim
Borges, Fernando de Almeida
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
Claerebout, Edwin
Ghent University
Gianechini, Leonor Sicalo
University System of Georgia
Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel
Universidade Federal de Goias
Mitchell, Sian
Former Anim and Plant Hlth Agcy APHA
Rinaldi, Laura
Univ Naples Feder II
von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
Free University of Berlin
Steffan, Pedro
Fiel and Steffan Consultores Asociados
Woodgate, Robert
University of Adelaide

UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

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