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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Relationships between socio-demographic / socio-economic characteristics and neighborhood green space in four Nordic municipalities-results from NORDGREEN

Aamodt, Geir; Nordh, Helena; Nordbo, Emma C. A.


Urban green space governs important ecosystem services including providing health promoting facilities. However, unequal distribution of green space among socio-demographic and socio-economic groups may create environmental injustice among inhabitants and between neighborhoods. This paper reports on access to different types of green space for residents in four Nordic cities. More precisely it explores relationships between socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics and access to green space at the neighbourhood level. We selected the following green space variables: distance between inhabitants' dwellings and parks, forest, and cemeteries; percentages and area per inhabitant of parks, forest, and cemeteries; and vegetation cover derived from satellite images and Urban Atlas. These were linked to income, education, age, and percentage of the population born outside their country of residence at a neighbourhood level. The results show that inhabitants in the four Nordic cities have great access to green space, but the percentage of different types of green space, such as forest and parks, varies between the cities and within the cities. We found that most inhabitants have less than 300 m to the nearest green space ranging from 92% in Stavanger (Norway) to 99.2% in Ta center dot by (Sweden). We also found differences in access depending on inhabitants' age, education, immigration status, and median income. Espoo (Finland) had the highest total green space coverage (45.3%), while Ta center dot by had the highest proportion of park coverage (2.3%). By compensating with green spaces in less affluent areas, and focusing on equal access to green space, planners can contribute to reduce health inequalities in the population.


Urban green spaces; Vegetation cover; Socio-demography; Environmental Justice; Geographic information systems

Published in

Urban Forestry and Urban Greening
2023, Volume: 82, article number: 127894

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities
    SDG8 Decent work and economic growth

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Human Geography
    Landscape Architecture

    Publication identifier


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