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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

From sewage sludge ash to a recycled feed phosphate-digestibility of precipitated calcium phosphate in broiler chickens and growing pigs

Akerfeldt, M. Presto; Stiernstrom, S.; Sigfridson, K.; Ivarsson, E.


Today, EU is largely (-92%) dependent on the import of phosphates as most mines are located outside Europe. Because of the limited availability, phosphorus (P) is included on the list of Critical Raw Materials. Precipitated calcium phosphate (PCP) recovered from sewage sludge ash is a novel and sus-tainable option to replace mined P as raw material in feed phosphates, e.g. monocalcium phosphate (MCP) or dicalcium phosphate, but the digestibility has not yet been tested in vivo. The aim was therefore to determine PCP and MCP apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of P in broiler chickens and apparent (ATTD) and true (TTTD) total tract digestibility of P in growing pigs. A chicken study comprised 240 Ross 308 chickens that were housed in groups of eight from day 21 to day 28. Five diets were used, a basal diet and two test diets, which contributed either 0.075% (low) or 0.150% (high) additional P for each of the test sources (MCP and PCP). The basal and test diets were composed to achieve increasing levels of P and AID was calculated with regression analysis. In the pig study, eight individually housed pigs were used in a change-over study with two experimental periods. The pigs were fed a basal P-free diet in a preperiod to be able to estimate endogenous P losses and then two different diets in two periods using a change-over design, where MCP and PCP were the only P source, providing in total 0.33 (basal diet), 4.42 (MCP) and 3.53 (PCP) g kg-1P, respectively. The AID of P in PCP and MCP for chickens was 58.4 and 75.1% (P = 0.166). The ATTD and TTTD of P in PCP for pigs were 58.4 and 67.2%, respectively, which was lower (P < 0.001) than the corresponding values for MCP (82.1 and 89.1%), respectively. The digestibility of calcium (Ca) did not differ in the chicken diets with high inclusion levels of PCP and MCP (54.7 and 55.3%, respectively, P = 0.535), but was lower for PCP than MCP in the pig study (57.8 and 70.8% respectively, P = 0.001). In conclusion, the digestibility of P in PCP for chickens did not differ from conventional MCP, whereas for pigs, it was lower, but could be a viable alternative to other common sources of P.(c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (


Digestible P; Environment; Feed formulation; Monogastric animals; Recovered P

Published in

2023, Volume: 17, number: 6, article number: 100819
Publisher: ELSEVIER