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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis in a Swedish gilt-producing herd, a case report

Fjelkner, Johanna; Hulten, Cecilia; Jacobson, Magdalena; Norregard, Erik; Young, Beth

Abstract

BackgroundWhen Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) was detected in faecal samples collected within the Swedish Salmonella surveillance program from a gilt multiplying herd in September 2020, S. Choleraesuis had not been detected in domestic pigs or wild boar in Sweden for over 40 years. This report describes the subsequent investigation, identification of possible entry routes and measures undertaken to eliminate the pathogen from the herd.Case presentationIn accordance with Swedish regulations, pig movements to and from the farm were restricted, internal biosecurity measures were enhanced, and a test-and-remove strategy was implemented. Testing included repeated faecal sampling, tissue samplings from all dead or euthanized pigs, and serological sampling of replacement gilts. Epidemiological investigations included scrutinising of production records, employee interviews, analysing feed and environmental samples, faecal samples from the herd's purebred gilt supplier, and tissue and faecal samples from wild boars in the adjacent area. Testing of in-contact herds receiving gilts (n = 15) or 30-kg pigs (n = 7) from the multiplier included whole-herd faecal sampling and tissue cultures from pigs that died with signs of septicaemia. In total, S. Choleraesuis was detected in 12/4200 faecal and 5/1350 tissue samples from the herd, and the corresponding groups of pigs were euthanized. All feed and environmental samples as well as samples from the gilt supplier were negative. Testing of contact herds resulted in the identification and culling of one group of S. Choleraesuis-positive gilts. Replacement gilts introduced to the herd from January until May 2021 remained serologically negative during a surveillance-period of five months.ConclusionAlthough speculative, the epidemiological investigation identified indirect transmission from wild boar as possible source of introduction to the herd. Whole-genome sequencing of S. Choleraesuis isolates from wild boar in the area showed that they clustered with isolates from the herd. Repeated testing of the herd indicated that the test-and-remove strategy was successful. In August 2021, all restrictions were removed, and the herd was re-instated as a gilt producing herd. Compensation from the Swedish state to the farmer for production losses, culled animals and extra costs associated with the elimination cost totalled SEK 7 992 234.

Keywords

Salmonella; Choleraesuis; Salmonellosis; Pigs; Elimination

Published in

Porcine Health Management
2023, Volume: 9, number: 1, article number: 35
Publisher: BMC

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Clinical Science

    Publication identifier

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-023-00329-7

    Permanent link to this page (URI)

    https://res.slu.se/id/publ/123499