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Book chapter2023Peer reviewedOpen access

Demands on monitoring

Allard, Anna; Guerrero, Santiago; Aagaard Christensen, Andreas; Benzler, Armin; Appelberg, Magnus; Ståhl, Göran; Sandewall, Mats


This chapter provides a short overview of the types of processes for reporting as well as legislation that governs why and how monitoring is undertaken and some of the ways in which stakeholders are involved at different levels. Because monitoring for the policy side is, by default, mandated monitoring, this type becomes the focus of this chapter, while noting that many policies and legislation may have been prompted by the results of question-driven monitoring, pointing out areas of concern. In fact, the iterative process of monitoring, analysis, and reporting to a government that, in turn, changes the policies to better fit concerns or issues needing addressing can be seen as a co-development.

Whereas the previous chapter illustrated what monitoring is, this chapter illustrates some of the demands on monitoring in legislation and policy, where they outline what monitoring is asked to contribute. The chapter reviews legislation on the global scene, on the community level of the European Union, and at national levels in the areas of water bodies and semi-aquatic, agricultural, urban, and forested semi-natural or natural landscapes.

Published in

Title: Monitoring Biodiversity : Combining Environmental and Social Data
ISBN: 978-1-032-01593-4, eISBN: 978-1-003-17924-5Publisher: Routledge