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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Procyanidin B2 alleviates uterine toxicity induced by cadmium exposure in rats: The effect of oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut microbiota

Hu, Binhong; Liu, Songqing; Luo, Yuanyue; Pu, Jingyu; Deng, Xin; Zhou, Wenjing; Dong, Yuqing; Ma, Yichuan; Wang, Gang; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Tianhui; Zhan, Jiasui

Abstract

Environmental exposure to hazardous materials causes enormous socioeconomic problems due to its deleterious impacts on human beings, agriculture and animal husbandry. As an important hazardous material, cadmium can promote uterine oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to reproductive toxicity. Antioxidants have been reported to attenuate the reproductive toxicity associated with cadmium exposure. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of procyanidin oligosaccharide B2 (PC-B2) and gut microbiota on uterine toxicity induced by cadmium exposure in rats. The results showed that the expression levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were reduced in utero. Proinflammatory cytokines (including tumor necrosis factor-& alpha;, interleukin-1 & beta; and interleukin-6), the NLRP3 inflammasome, Caspase-1 and pro-IL-1 & beta; were all involved in inflammatory-mediated uterine injury. PC-B2 prevented CdCl2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in uterine tissue by increasing antioxidant enzymes and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, PC-B2 significantly reduced cadmium deposition in the uterus, possibly through its significant increase in MT1, MT2, and MT3 mRNA expression. Interestingly, PC-B2 protected the uterus from CdCl2 damage by increasing the abundance of intestinal microbiota, promoting beneficial microbiota, and inhibiting harmful microbiota. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the toxicity of environmental cadmium exposure and indicates that PC-B2 could be used in the prevention of cadmium exposure-induced uterine toxicity.

Keywords

Procyanidin B2; Cadmium exposure; Uterine toxicity; Rats; Microbiome

Published in

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
2023, Volume: 263, article number: 115290
Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE