Dietary fibre and cell-wall polysaccharides in chaenomeles fruits
Thomas, M.; Thibault, J.-F.
In this paper, research on dietary fibre and cell-wall polysaccharides in chaenomeles fruits is reported and summarised. The dietary fibre in fruits of 12 genotypes of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) and 1 genotype of flowering quince (C. speciosa) was prepared using two different methods: the Alcohol Insoluble Solid (AIS) method; and the AOAC method for total as well as for soluble and insoluble fibre. The two methods resulted in significantly different estimates, however, no interaction was found between the methods and the genotypes studied. For content of total dietary fibre, three main groups were distinguished, one containing a low amount of fibre (3 genotypes, 28–30 g/100 g dry matter); one containing a moderate amount of fibre (9 genotypes, 30–36 g/100 g dry matter) and an isolated genotype (C. speciosa) that contained a high amount of fibre (38 g/100 g dry matter). The amount and the nature of monomeric sugars in the constituent polysaccharides of the fibre were determined after total hydrolysis of the AIS and the TDF (Total Dietary Fibre). The fibre contained mostly pectic and cellulosic polysaccharides. A sequential extraction scheme allowed the separation of the cell-wall material into its major components (cellulose, pectins and hemicelluloses). The AIS was composed of 30 g pectins, 8 g hemicelluloses and 60 g cellulosic residue/100 g AIS. In 100 g entire dry fruit (800 g entire fresh fruit) there were 11 g pectins, 3 g hemicelluloses and 18 g cellulosic residue. Pectins were mostly located in the flesh of the fruit. Pectins were more efficiently extracted with hot dilute acid than with other extraction media. Pectins had a high degree of methylation (DM) and a low degree of acetylation (DAc). No difference was found in the quantity of polysaccharides extracted from two Japanese quince genotypes, or in the composition of these constituent polysaccharides. The physico-chemical properties of pectins extracted from two genotypes of Japanese quince were studied. On average, the fruits contained 11 g pectins/100 g dry fruit corresponding to 1.4 g pectins/100 g fresh fruit. Pectins were sequentially extracted, and the cells from the flesh of the fruits were observed with a confocal laser scan microscope. Although the dilute acid conditions were the most efficient for extraction of pectins, pectins extracted by water or potassium oxalate had higher (> 600 ml/g) intrinsic viscosities than pectins extracted by dilute acid (< 400 ml/g). Anionic exchange chromatography was performed on the acid-extracted pectins. The pectins were composed of four populations, the first being mainly composed of arabinans, the second of homogalacturonans and the third of rhamnogalacturonans. The composition of the fourth population differed depending on the genotype studied.
Chaenomeles; Dietary fibres; Pectins
Publisher: Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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