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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Molecular and genetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza type 3 European field and vaccine strains

Gaudino, Maria; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Hagglund, Sara; Naslund, Katarina; Zohari, Siamak; Ducatez, Mariette F.; Meyer, Gilles


Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 virus (BPIV-3) is an enveloped, non-segmented single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Respirovirus) with a well-known role in Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) onset. Being isolated for the first time in 1959, BPIV-3 currently circulates worldwide in cattle herds and is routinely tested in suspected BRD cases. Different commercial vaccines are available to prevent infection and/or to reduce the clinical signs associated with BPIV-3 infection, which are essential to prevent secondary infections. Despite years of molecular surveillance, a very limited number of complete genome se-quences were made publicly available, preventing thus the understanding of the genetic diversity of the circu-lating strains in the field. In addition, no data about the genetic identity between field and vaccine strains is currently available. In this study, we sequenced the full-genome and genetically characterized BPIV-3 strains isolated from animals displaying respiratory illness in France and Sweden, as well as the vaccine strains con-tained in three different commercialized vaccines. Our results show that the sequences from France and Sweden belong to genotype C. However, a third sequence from Sweden from 2017 clustered within genotype A. The sequencing of vaccine strains revealed that two of the vaccine strains clustered within genotype C, whereas the third vaccine strain belonged to genotype A. Altogether, our findings suggest that both genotypes A and C circulate in Europe and that BPIV-3 field and vaccine strains are genetically divergent. Our sequencing results could be useful to better understand the genetic differences between the circulating field and vaccine BPIV-3 strains. This is crucial for a correct interpretation of diagnostic findings and for the assessment of BPIV-3 prevalence in cattle population.


Bovine parainfluenza type 3; Cattle; Bovine respiratory disease; Vaccines; Phylogeny

Published in

Infection, Genetics and Evolution
2023, Volume: 113, article number: 105483
Publisher: ELSEVIER