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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Pyometra in Small Animals 3.0

Hagman, Ragnvi

Abstract

  • Pyometra is a potentially life-threatening illness in female pets. It is common in middle- to older aged bitches and queens, and usually diagnosed within 4 months of estrus. Hormones and bacteria are involved in the disease development, and progesterone plays a key role. Disorders of the endometrium such as cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) are considered predisposing factors but pyometra and CEH can develop independently.

  • There are considerable age-related and breed-related differences in the occurrence of pyometra, and genetic factors may contribute to an increased vulnerability in high-risk breeds.

  • The diagnosis is based on case history, clinical signs, and findings on physical examination, hematology and biochemistry laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging identifying intrauterine fluid.


  • Peritonitis, endotoxemia, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome are common complications of pyometra and are associated with more severe illness. Several biomarkers and inflammatory variables have been identified that may be valuable for diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment follow-up.

  • The safest and most effective treatment of pyometra is ovariohysterectomy, which directly removes the source of infection and prevents recurrence. Purely medical (pharmacologic) treatment can be an alternative in younger and otherwise healthy breeding animals with open cervix pyometra and without other uterine or ovarian pathologic conditions.

Keywords

Endometritis; Cystic endometrial hyperplasia; Sepsis; Aglepristone; Prostaglandin; Cabergoline; Bromocriptine; Epidemiology

Published in

Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice
2023, Volume: 53, number: 5, pages: 1223-1254
Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Clinical Science

    Publication identifier

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2023.04.009

    Permanent link to this page (URI)

    https://res.slu.se/id/publ/124724