Värmeförsörjning baserad på skogsbränsle lokalt producerat av lantbrukare : specialstudie av Norrtälje-området
Petersson, Magdalena; Similä, Katja
This paper deals with the possibility to use locally produced tree chips for the heating of smaller population centres in Sweden. In this study we have used the town of Norrtälje as a case study. There are many reasons for investigating the requirements for an enlarged use of fuelwood. Not only does it exist large supplies of fuelwood in Sweden. We also have a large resource of competent farmers that may need an alternative occupation due to the fact that it is now difficult to find profitability in conventional farming. This is particularly applicable to smaller farms in the woodland areas of Sweden. It is also a fact that using fuelwood to produce thermal energy is associated with several positive side-effects, for instance increased employment as well as increased investments in the countryside. It also gives positive effects on the environment compared to the burning of fossil fuels. Another reason for considering the use of fuelchips for production of thermal energy is the present proposal for making emissions of S, NOX and CO2 a subject to a fee. This will strengthen the economical terms of fuelwood compared to fossil fuels. A business concept that includes the establishing of by farmers jointly owned companies or co-operatives, would make it possible to guarantee a continuous delivery of fuelchips to the heating plant. The heating plant is connected to a district heating system, or used to provide heating for schools, nursing homes etc., and may also be owned and run by the co-operative. This would make it possible for the farmers to convert the fuelchips into thermal energy and in that way be able to set aside all middlemen and themselves market the heat. The fuelwood situation in Norrtälje can be described as large quantities of fuelwood being obtainable from thinning and cleaning wastes in productive forests and from cleaning in thicket forests. However, from our survey among farmers regarding their interest in producing fuelchips, we arrived at the conclusion that very few farmers are interested, at least at the present price level of fuelchips. The survey was addressed to all farmers in eight parishes surrounding Norrtälje. From a total number of 471 farmers with a total acreage of 24 000 ha of forest land, there were only 33 farmers with a total acreage of 2 100 ha that stated an interest in fuelchip-production. The amount of fuelchips obtainable from the forests of the interested farmers, approximately 50 000 m3s (late thinning excluded), are enough to supply a furnace with an effect of 2 MW during a period of five years. The 33 farmers also stated a willingness to grow energy forest on a total acreage of approximately 120 ha. The amount of fuelchips obtainable from this acreage of energy forest can supply a 2 MW furnace. Our conclusion is that the lack of interest is a bigger obstruction to our business concept than the magnitude of the fuelwood supply in the area. The lack of interest among farmers in Norrtälje can partly be explained by the close distance to Stockholm and the great number of jobs available there. The farmers also express an uncertainty of the municipality’s willingness to co-operate and the actual profitability in such a co-operative. We find it likely to assume that a survey among farmers in other areas of Sweden would result in a more positive answer. Finally, if the authorities are interested in a utilization of an energy supply based on a renewable and locally produced energy source such as treechips, they should also realize that the farmers need a financial stimulance to start the production. Without a resonable economical outcome from the performed hours of work, there will be no farmers willing to start producing fuelwood. It is quite possible to justify an increased price of fuelchips. This can be done by extending the financial base on which the planning of heating plants are made to include also the side effects associated with the burning of different fuels.
biobränsle; bränsle; energiskog; fastbränsle; fjärrvärme; skogsbränsle; trädbränsle; ved
Rapport - Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för lantbruksteknik
Publisher: Institutionen för lantbruksteknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
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