Provenance variation in early growth and development in Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.
Ståhl, Erik G.; Persson, Bengt
Provenance variation in Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P. (Black spruce) seedlings was studied to provide recommendations for introducing the species into Scandinavia. Provenances were analysed in a series of tests covering root and shoot development and mineral nutrient (N. P and K) content. The studies were carried out as greenhouse tests, as nursery trials, as cold tolerance tests in growth chambers and by destructive sampling. The performance of Black spruce was compared with that of Norway spruce. Black spruce seed sources exhibited large clinal variation for most of the properties evaluated. Compared with northwestern seed sources, southeastern sources were taller, exhibited later bud flushing and bud set, showed a lower degree of lignification and a lower dry matter content in autumn, had a higher incidence of winter-damaged seedlings and a higher shoot: root ratio. Within the eastern region, east of 100"W. provenance variation was characterized using cluster analysis. Provenances orginating around latitudes 47-51"N and west of longitudes 65"W were tallest, whereas southeastern provenances produced most dry matter. Norway spruce exhibited a developmental phenology and biomass properties similar to Black spruce orginating at latitudes between 50 and 60% However, Norway spruce had thicker roots and stems and was more susceptible to spring frosts following bud flushing.
Picea mariana; clinal variation; phenology; shoot : root ratio
Studia Forestalia Suecica
Publisher: Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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