Arbetsmaskiners bidrag till luftföroreningar i tätorter
Lindgren, Magnus; Hansson, Per-Anders; Wetterberg, Christian
The Swedish government has decided an action plan against particulate matter (PM10) within the county of Stockholm. Among other thing, the action plan stipulate that measures shall be taken in order to increase the knowledge about emissions of PM10 from non-road mobile machinery and their contribution to the air quality within densely populated areas. Non-road mobile machinery are characterised as mobile machinery not intended for the use of passenger- or goods-transport on the road, and equipped with an internal combustion engine as specified in directive 97/68/EC and directive 2000/25/EC, i.e. agricultural and forestry tractors and construction equipment such as wheel loaders, excavators, articulated haulers and mobile cranes. The purpose of this project, which was financed by the Swedish national road administration, was to update and summarise the current knowledge concerning fuel consumption and emissions from non-road mobile machinery and their contribution to the air quality in densely populated areas. A more specific aim of the project was to estimate the occurrence and age distribution and annual work hours of non-road mobile machinery within densely populated areas. Furthermore, annual fuel consumption and emissions amounts were also derived. Usually a single emission factor for each pollutant has been used when estimating emissions from the entire non-road mobile machinery sector, which has resulted in fairly uncertain results. Previous research has shown that it is not possible to develop one single set of emission factors that gives representative results for all types of non-road mobile machinery and operations (Hansson et al., 2001; Starr et al., 1999; Ullman et al., 1999). The latest research within the EMMA-projects in Sweden about the presence, use and emissions from non-road mobile machinery has resulted in better knowledge and data concerning emissions from non-road mobile machinery. Within the present project, emissions from non-road mobile machinery in two densely populated areas or population centres with different sizes have been studied. One large population centre represented by the city of Stockholm and one small represented by the town of Ljungby. The calculation of fuel consumption and emissions from non-road mobile machinery within the city of Stockholm has been conducted in accordance with the advanced approach presented by the emission inventory guidebook from the European Environement Agency (EEA, 2005). However, the methodology has been modified in order to thoroughly represent the actual assembly of non-road mobile machinery including the work performed by those machines annually. The same model that was used to derive fuel consumption has been employed for emissions as well. Compared with using average information, more reliable data were obtained through describing the number of machines, annual hour, engine power, load factor, specific fuel consumption and emissions amounts for each type of non-road mobile machinery and model year. All data were stored and used in different matrices, one for each variable. In total 31 different types of machines were defined for which data were collected for all model years from 1982 to 2006. Extensive inventories of non-road mobile machinery were carried out for both the city of Stockholm and Ljungby. For Stockholm the inventory contained both number of units and annual work hour as function of the age of the machinery. Reliable data could be obtained through the Swedish Machinery Testing Institute’s accredited inspection database in combination with statistics over both annual sale returns and registered machinery from the national vehicle database. The results from the inventory showed that about 2 800 non-road mobile machinery with both varying age and annual work hours operated within the city of Stockholm. In the city of Ljungby, less than 100 non-road mobile machinery were estimated to operate, thus called for an alternative method for the inventory. Based on data from local contractors that operated in the city of Ljungby, annual work hour for different types of non-road mobile machinery were collected. The result showed that about 48 000 hours of work with non-road mobile machinery were carried out within the city of Ljungby annually. Moreover, the majority of the work were performed with wheel loaders and different types of excavators. In table S1 annual emission- and fuel consumption amounts from the non-road mobile machinery sector in the cities of Stockholm and Ljungby year 2006 are shown.
Rapport. Miljö, teknik och lantbruk
Publisher: Institutionen för biometri och teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
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