A methodology for estimating annual fuel consumption and emissions from non-road mobile machinery
This report comprises fuel consumption and emissions from non-road mobile machinery equipped with diesel engine with a rated power of 37 to 560 kW. Non-road mobile machinery comprises of tractors, wheel loaders, excavators, articulated haulers and trucks etc. Non-road mobile machinery is almost exclusively equipped with diesel engine and thus significantly contributes to the overall emissions of pollutants in the society. In Europe non-road mobile machinery contributes with about 15 to 20% of the total emissions of nitrogen oxides (EEA, 2005). Besides estimates of annual fuel consumption and emission amounts this report also include inventories of the number of machines and the annual work hours. In total 15 different types of non-road mobile machinery was identified, of which one was other machinery. Each type of machinery was further divided into three net power regions. Information concerning number of machines, annual work hour, rated engine power, load factor and fuel consumption and emission factors were obtained for each type of machine, power region and model year for the last 25 years. Annual fuel consumption and emissions amounts were individually calculated for each type of machine, net power region and model year. The methodology employed within this study differs to some extend to that of other recently conducted studies within the same area, emissions from non-road mobile machinery. Firstly, concern was taken to the age distribution, for example both the number of machinery and the annual work hour varies significantly with age or model year of the machinery. Secondly, both fuel consumption and emissions factors were individually adapted the each type of machinery and activity in order to better represent the actual use of the machinery and thus resulting fuel consumption and emissions. The fuel consumption and emission factors were based on the CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook and European emissions regulations for non-road mobile machinery and adjusted for: • differences in quality and specification between the fuel stipulated for use during type approval and Swedish diesel of environmental class 1, • differences between the maximum value stipulated in the emission regulations and the recorded emission amounts during type approval, • differences in engine load between the test cycle employed during type approval and during real use of the machinery, and • deterioration in fuel consumption and emission formation with increasing age. In total, 290 000 non-road mobile machinery with a rated engine power of 37 to 560 kW were estimated to operate in Sweden year 2006, which was about 25% more machinery compared with the last published study concerning number of non-road mobile machinery in Sweden (Flodström et al., 2004). The annual estimated fuel consumption and emission mounts from the non-road mobile machinery sector in Sweden for year 2006 is shown in table S1. The estimated annual fuel consumption was about 5% lower compared with previous studies despite the higher number of machinery included. For emissions the differences were even larger compared with the above-mentioned study. Emissions of both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced with approximately 70% each or 13 000 and 5 100 ton respectively. Corresponding data for emissions of nitrogen oxides was 20 000 ton or 50%. However, the largest difference was obtained for emissions of particulate matter, the estimated amounts within the present study was reduced with 75% or 3 100 ton compared with the amounts estimated in previous studies. The differences obtained could be attributed to several aspects, for example significantly improved inventory data and especially the age distribution and annual work hour as function of machinery age. Another important characteristics of the present study were the adaptation of fuel consumption and emission factors to the actual use and conditions in Sweden. Finally, the model employed calculated the annual fuel consumption and emission amounts for each type of machinery, net power region and model year individually and not only as averages.
Rapport. Miljö, teknik och lantbruk
Publisher: Institutionen för biometri och teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
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