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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Utilization of microalgal-bacterial energy nexus improves CO2 sequestration and remediation of wastewater pollutants for beneficial environmental services

Hasnain, Maria; Zainab, Rida; Ali, Faraz; Abideen, Zainul; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; El-Keblawy, Ali; Hashmi, Saud; Radicetti, Emanuele


Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and coal are primary contributors of greenhouse gases leading to global climate change and warming. The toxicity of heavy metals and metalloids in the environment threatens ecological functionality, diversity and global human life. The ability of microalgae to thrive in harsh environments such as industrial wastewater, polluted lakes, and contaminated seawaters presents new, environmentally friendly, and less expensive CO2 remediation solutions. Numerous microalgal species grown in wastewater for industrial purposes may absorb and convert nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter into proteins, oil, and carbohydrates. In any multi-faceted micro-ecological system, the role of bacteria and their interactions with microalgae can be harnessed appropriately to enhance microalgae performance in either wastewater treatment or algal production systems. This algal-bacterial energy nexus review focuses on examining the processes used in the capture, storage, and biological fixation of CO2 by various microalgal species, as well as the optimized production of microalgae in open and closed cultivation systems. Microalgal production depends on different biotic and abiotic variables to ultimately deliver a high yield of microalgal biomass.


Carbon sequestration; Carbon storage; Microalgae; Wastewater

Published in

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
2023, Volume: 267, article number: 115646

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Water Treatment
    Environmental Sciences

    Publication identifier


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