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Research article2023Peer reviewedOpen access

Fluorescence-activated multi-organelle mapping of subcellular plant hormone distribution

Skalicky, Vladimir; Antoniadi, Ioanna; Pencik, Ales; Chamrad, Ivo; Lenobel, Rene; Kubes, Martin F.; Zatloukal, Marek; Zukauskaite, Asta; Strnad, Miroslav; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej


Auxins and cytokinins are two major families of phytohormones that control most aspects of plant growth, development and plasticity. Their distribution in plants has been described, but the importance of cell- and subcellular-type specific phytohormone homeostasis remains undefined. Herein, we revealed auxin and cytokinin distribution maps showing their different organelle-specific allocations within the Arabidopsis plant cell. To do so, we have developed Fluorescence-Activated multi-Organelle Sorting (FAmOS), an innovative subcellular fractionation technique based on flow cytometric principles. FAmOS allows the simultaneous sorting of four differently labelled organelles based on their individual light scatter and fluorescence parameters while ensuring hormone metabolic stability. Our data showed different subcellular distribution of auxin and cytokinins, revealing the formation of phytohormone gradients that have been suggested by the subcellular localization of auxin and cytokinin transporters, receptors and metabolic enzymes. Both hormones showed enrichment in vacuoles, while cytokinins were also accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum.


Auxin; cytokinin; Arabidopsis thaliana; subcellular homeostasis; subcellular fractionation; flow cytometry; LC-MS/MS; technical advances

Published in

Plant Journal
2023, Volume: 116, number: 6, pages: 1825-1841
Publisher: WILEY