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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Feline Infectious Peritonitis: European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases Guidelines

Tasker, Severine; Addie, Diane D.; Egberink, Herman; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hosie, Margaret J.; Truyen, Uwe; Belak, Sandor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Frymus, Tadeusz; Lloret, Albert; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Thiry, Etienne; Moestl, Karin; Hartmann, Katrin

Abstract

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a ubiquitous RNA virus of cats, which is transmitted faeco-orally. In these guidelines, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD) presents a comprehensive review of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV is primarily an enteric virus and most infections do not cause clinical signs, or result in only enteritis, but a small proportion of FCoV-infected cats develop FIP. The pathology in FIP comprises a perivascular phlebitis that can affect any organ. Cats under two years old are most frequently affected by FIP. Most cats present with fever, anorexia, and weight loss; many have effusions, and some have ocular and/or neurological signs. Making a diagnosis is complex and ABCD FIP Diagnostic Approach Tools are available to aid veterinarians. Sampling an effusion, when present, for cytology, biochemistry, and FCoV RNA or FCoV antigen detection is very useful diagnostically. In the absence of an effusion, fine-needle aspirates from affected organs for cytology and FCoV RNA or FCoV antigen detection are helpful. Definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathology with FCoV antigen detection. Antiviral treatments now enable recovery in many cases from this previously fatal disease; nucleoside analogues (e.g., oral GS-441524) are very effective, although they are not available in all countries.

Keywords

feline coronavirus; FIP; FCoV; mutation; diagnosis; treatment; antiviral

Published in

Viruses
2023, Volume: 15, number: 9, article number: 1847
Publisher: MDPI