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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Analysis of the concentration of heavy metals in soil, vegetables and water around the bole Lemi industry park, Ethiopia

Lemessa, Fituma; Simane, Belay; Seyoum, Assefa; Gebresenbet, Girma


Irrigation water contaminated with industrial waste could pollute the soil and vegetables with heavy metals. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables after irrigation practices with wastewater emanating from industrial parks. 24 samples were collected from 8 sampling stations for vegetable, soil and water samples separately, following APHA procedures. Samples were collected using a composite sampling method in May and June 2021. Water samples were collected using clean polyethylene plastic bottles while soil and vegetables were sampled using clean plastic bags. Analysis was done for heavy metal concentrations such as Pb, Cr, Cd, and Zn for each sample using descriptive statistics of changes in concentrations, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Principal Component Analysis and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The mean concentration of heavy metals in soil, vegetables, and water samples was analyzed. Unlike the rest of the heavy metal concentrations, the result showed the highest levels for Zn, i.e., 7.82 mg/kg and 5.12 mg/kg for vegetables and soil samples, respectively. The maximum value of the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the highest value of Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), and the maximum Target Cancer Risk (TCR) value recorded were 19.39, 0.001, and 8.09 x 10(-5) for Cd, Zn, and Cr, respectively. But, Hazard Index (HI) indicated no potential health effects. On the other hand, the concentration of heavy metals in the soil sample showed that Cr and Cd were strongly positively correlated with the concentration of Pb in vegetables during May. Cd concentration in the water sample was also strongly positively correlated with the concentration of Pb during May. The application of proper management for the reduction of contaminants, and suitable irrigation methods with treated wastewater is essential. The study can provide a basis for the City Administration of Addis Ababa to properly protect the water quality of rivers and provide a reference for river management around the industry parks across the country.


Pollution; Wastewater; Bioconectration factor; Health hazard; Health index; Health risk

Published in

2022, Volume: 8, number: 12, article number: e12429Publisher: CELL PRESS

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG6 Clean water and sanitation

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences

    Publication identifier


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