Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

The Importance of Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Point for Effective Pathogen Control in Animal Feed: Assessment of Salmonella Control in Feed Production in Sweden, 1982–2005

Wierup, Martin


This study is the first to show that Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based monitoring can be an effective tool for ensuring Salmonella-safe feed, by virtually eliminating feedborne Salmonella infection even in broiler production. Data from the control of Salmonella in feed and food animal production during 1982–2005, showed that conventional endpoint testing in feed mills did not ensure a Salmonella-safe feed, and in one feed mill failed to detect Salmonella contamination, resulting in the feed infecting 80 out of 197 (40.6%) recipient broiler flocks. Following implementation in 1991 of a HACCP-based control in feed mills, the annual number of samples tested at specified critical control points during a 15-year period increased from ∼4400 to 10,000, while the proportion of Salmonella-contaminated samples decreased from 2.0% to 0.3%. Thus, introduction of HACCP was followed by a dramatic decrease, from 40 to <5, in the annual number of Salmonella-infected broiler flocks identified by preslaughter monitoring. Incidence has generally remained at that low level, despite production since 1980 increasing from 39 to 112 million chickens per year. Feed mills start using soymeal with an unsafe Salmonella status and possibly with a suboptimal HACCP control, increased their level of Salmonella-contaminated HACCP samples, and their feed subsequently infected 78 swine-producing herds. The results also show that the HACCP concept can be an effective tool to supply feed mills with Salmonella-safe feed ingredients as demonstrated for a soybean crushing plant, which produced Salmonella-safe soymeal over a 19-year period despite frequent (34%) and highly varied (92 different serovars) Salmonella contamination in samples from incoming soybean. Similar results are reported for a plant producing rapeseed meal. It is emphasized that the achievements described through use of the HACCP required interventions of relevant preventive biosecurity measures and corrective actions when the HACCP-based monitoring identified Salmonella contamination.


HACCP; feed mill; Salmonella; animal feed; soy meal; poultry, swine

Published in

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Animal and Dairy Science

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)