Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Preparation and Characterization of Softwood and Hardwood Nanofibril Hydrogels: Toward Wound Dressing Applications

Bas, Yagmur; Berglund, Linn; Niittyla, Totte; Zattarin, Elisa; Aili, Daniel; Sotra, Zeljana; Rinklake, Ivana; Junker, Johan; Rakar, Jonathan; Oksman, Kristiina


Hydrogels of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are promising wound dressing candidates due to their biocompatibility, high water absorption, and transparency. Herein, two different commercially available wood species, softwood and hardwood, were subjected to TEMPO-mediated oxidation to proceed with delignification and oxidation in a one-pot process, and thereafter, nanofibrils were isolated using a high-pressure microfluidizer. Furthermore, transparent nanofibril hydrogel networks were prepared by vacuum filtration. Nanofibril properties and network performance correlated with oxidation were investigated and compared with commercially available TEMPO-oxidized pulp nanofibrils and their networks. Softwood nanofibril hydrogel networks exhibited the best mechanical properties, and in vitro toxicological risk assessment showed no detrimental effect for any of the studied hydrogels on human fibroblast or keratinocyte cells. This study demonstrates a straightforward processing route for direct oxidation of different wood species to obtain nanofibril hydrogels for potential use as wound dressings, with softwood having the most potential.

Published in

2023, Volume: 24, number: 12, pages: 5605-5619

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Polymer Technologies
    Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)