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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2024

Effects of agro based organic amendments on growth and cadmium uptake in wheat and rice crops irrigated with raw city effluents: Three years field study

Shaghaleh, Hiba; Azhar, Muhammad; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; et al.


Cadmium (Cd) accumulates in the vegetative tissues of rice and wheat crops, posing a serious threat in the food chain. A long-term field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB), farm manure (FM), press mud (PrM), and poultry manure (PM) on the growth, yield, and economics of wheat and rice crops grown with sewage water. The results showed that RHB increased wheat plant height (27%, 66%, 70%), spike-length (33%, 99%, 56%), straw yield (21%, 51%, 49%), and grain yield (42%, 63%, 65%) in year-1, year-2, and year-3, than respective controls. For rice crop, RHB showed the maximum increase in plant height (64%, 92%, 96%), spike length (55%, 95%, 90%), straw yield (34%, 53%, 55%), and grain yield (46%, 66%, 69%) each year (2019–2021), compared to their respective controls. The Cd immobilization was increased by the application of RHB while other treatments followed FM > PrM > PM > control in each year of wheat and rice crops. For year-1, benefit-cost ratio remained maximum with the application of FM while for the 2nd and 3rd years in sequence, RHB proved more economical than other treatments and consistently produced wheat and rice with lower Cd concentration than FM, PrM, and PM in grains. This long-term experiment suggested that the application of organic amendments consistently increased biomass of rice and wheat and decreased the Cd concentration in tissues. The RHB remained more effective compared with FM, PrM, and PM in terms of yield, low Cd accumulation and economics of rice and wheat crops.


Cadmium; Rice husk biochar; Grain yield; Immobilization; Farm manure; Benefit-cost ratio

Published in

Environmental Pollution
2024, Volume: 344, article number: 123365

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Agricultural Science

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