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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Future climate impacts of sodium-ion batteries

Zhang, Shan; Steubing, Bernhard; Potter, Hanna Karlsson; Hansson, Per-Anders; Nordberg, Ake


Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their promising performance in terms of battery cycle lifetime, safety, operating in wider temperature range, as well as the abundant and low-cost of sodium resources. This study evaluated the climate impacts of three SIBs, and compared to two LIBs under four scenarios with considering potential changes in battery performance and background productions between 2020 and 2050. To ensure a fair comparison, all batteries were modeled in the 21,700 form, and a battery dimensioning model was developed to calculate the required amount of components for each battery. We found that equal to lower GHG emissions result from the use of SIBs compared to LIBs under optimal performance scenarios. From 2020 to 2050, the climate impacts of SIBs decreased by 43-57 %. The relative contribution of the battery manufacturing process decreases from 18-32 % to 2-4 % due to the increasingly share of clean energy in the electricity grid, while the relative contribution of key battery component materials increases over time, especially for cathode active materials. These results emphasize the significance of decarbonizing the electric grid, and suggest that future investment in SIBs is promising from an environmental point of view.


Prospective life cycle assessment; Sodium-ion batteries; Greenhouse gas emissions; Emerging technologies

Published in

Resources, Conservation and Recycling
2024, Volume: 202, article number: 107362
Publisher: ELSEVIER