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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Proteome changes in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to (±) anatoxin-a

Langan, Laura M.; Lovin, Lea M.; Taylor, Raegyn B.; et al.

Abstract

Anatoxin-a and its analogues are potent neurotoxins produced by several genera of cyanobacteria. Due in part to its high toxicity and potential presence in drinking water, these toxins pose threats to public health, companion animals and the environment. It primarily exerts toxicity as a cholinergic agonist, with high affinity at neuromuscular junctions, but molecular mechanisms by which it elicits toxicological responses are not fully understood. To advance understanding of this cyanobacteria, proteomic characterization (DIA shotgun proteomics) of two common fish models (zebrafish and fathead minnow) was performed following (±) anatoxin-a exposure. Specifically, proteome changes were identified and quantified in larval fish exposed for 96 h (0.01–3 mg/L (±) anatoxin-a and caffeine (a methodological positive control) with environmentally relevant treatment levels examined based on environmental exposure distributions of surface water data. Proteomic concentration - response relationships revealed 48 and 29 proteins with concentration - response relationships curves for zebrafish and fathead minnow, respectively. In contrast, the highest number of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) varied between zebrafish (n = 145) and fathead minnow (n = 300), with only fatheads displaying DEPs at all treatment levels. For both species, genes associated with reproduction were significantly downregulated, with pathways analysis that broadly clustered genes into groups associated with DNA repair mechanisms. Importantly, significant differences in proteome response between the species was also observed, consistent with prior observations of differences in response using both behavioral assays and gene expression, adding further support to model specific differences in organismal sensitivity and/or response. When DEPs were read across from humans to zebrafish, disease ontology enrichment identified diseases associated with cognition and muscle weakness consistent with the prior literature. Our observations highlight limited knowledge of how (±) anatoxina, a commonly used synthetic racemate surrogate, elicits responses at a molecular level and advances its toxicological understanding.

Keywords

Harmful algal bloom; Anatoxin-a; Zebrafish; Fathead minnow; Molecular toxicology; Proteomics

Published in

Environment International
2024, Volume: 185, article number: 108514

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Environmental Sciences
    Microbiology

    Publication identifier

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2024.108514

    Permanent link to this page (URI)

    https://res.slu.se/id/publ/128557