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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Valorizing Assorted Logging Residues: Response Surface Methodology in the Extraction Optimization of a Green Norway Spruce Needle-Rich Fraction To Obtain Valuable Bioactive Compounds

Tienaho, Jenni; Fidelis, Marina; Brännström, Hanna; et al.


During stemwood harvesting, substantial volumes of logging residues are produced as a side stream. Nevertheless, industrially feasible processing methods supporting their use for other than energy generation purposes are scarce. Thus, the present study focuses on biorefinery processing, employing response surface methodology to optimize the pressurized extraction of industrially assorted needle-rich spruce logging residues with four solvents. Eighteen experimental points, including eight center point replicates, were used to optimize the extraction temperature (40–135 °C) and time (10–70 min). The extraction optimization for water, water with Na2CO3 + NaHSO3 addition, and aqueous ethanol was performed using yield, total dissolved solids (TDS), antioxidant activity (FRAP, ORAC), antibacterial properties (E. coliS. aureus), total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannin content, and degree of polymerization. For limonene, evaluated responses were yield, TDS, antioxidant activity (CUPRAC, DPPH), and TPC. Desirability surfaces were created using the responses showing a coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.7, statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05), precision > 4, and statistically insignificant lack-of-fit (p > 0.1). The optimal extraction conditions were 125 °C and 68 min for aqueous ethanol, 120 °C and 10 min for water, 111 °C and 49 min for water with Na2CO3 + NaHSO3 addition, and 134 °C and 41 min for limonene. The outcomes contribute insights to industrial logging residue utilization for value-added purposes.

Published in

ACS sustainable resource management
2024, Volume: 1, number: 2, pages: 237-249