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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Synthesis of sustainable mesoporous sulfur-doped biobased carbon with superior performance sodium diclofenac removal: Kinetic, equilibrium, thermodynamic and mechanism

dos Reis, Glaydson S.; Grimm, Alejandro; Fungaro, Denise Alves; et al.


Over the last years, the strategy of employing inevitable organic waste and residue streams to produce valuable and greener materials for a wide range of applications has been proven an efficient and suitable approach. In this research, sulfur-doped porous biochar was produced through a single-step pyrolysis of birch waste tree in the presence of zinc chloride as chemical activator. The sulfur doping process led to a remarkable impact on the biochar structure. Moreover, it was shown that sulfur doping also had an important impact on sodium diclofenac (S-DCF) removal from aqueous solutions due to the introduction of S-functionalities on biochar surface. The adsorption experiments suggested that General and Liu models offered the best fit for the kinetic and equilibrium studies, respectively. The results showed that the kinetic was faster for the S-doped biochar while the maximum adsorption capacity values at 318 K were 564 mg g−1 (non-doped) and 693 mg g−1 (S-doped); highlighting the better affinity of S-doped biochar for the S-DCF molecule compared to non-doped biochar. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔS0, ΔG0) suggested that the S-DCF removal on both adsorbents was spontaneous, favourable, and endothermic.


Heteroatom doping; Sulfur-doped biochar; Fast adsorption's kinetic

Published in

Environmental Research
2024, Volume: 251, number: Part 1, article number: 118595