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Report2024Open access

Sustainable protein and biogas production from green leafy biomass

Mlook, Waleed


This paper explores the multifaceted potential of green leafy biomass as a sustainable resource for protein, energy, and biomass-derived chemicals, aligning with the goals of a circular bioeconomy and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Changing dietary trends, characterized by a shift towards plant-based protein alternatives, reflect evolving choices and sustainability concerns. The circular bioeconomy concept, focusing on renewable biogenic resources, is crucial for decarbonization and mitigating climate-negative effects.
Key points include the rising interest in plant-based proteins, the role of biorefineries in the circular bioeconomy, and the promise of green leafy biomass in addressing food security and protein demand. Examining by-products of the biorefinery process, including pulp, green juice, and brown juice, reveals opportunities for feed, biomaterials, fermentation, and biogas production. The valorization of green biomass, such as grass, ley crops, intermediate crops and leaves, is discussed in terms of raw material composition and potential applications, emphasizing local production to reduce environmental impact. The paper explores the significance of proteins, with a focus on RuBisCO from green leaves, in sustainable food production and biogas production. It provides insights into amino acid properties and protein structures, emphasizing the importance of RuBisCO, a key enzyme in carbon fixation. The paper discusses various protein extraction methods suitable for biorefinery processes, emphasizing the need to maximize protein yield. Biogas production from green biomass, particularly through anaerobic digestion, is highlighted, considering factors influencing production such as biomass composition.


Green leafy biomass; RuBisCO; Biorefinery; Carbohydrates; Protein; Sustainability

Published in

Introductory paper at the Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Horticulture and Crop Production Science
2024, number: 2024:1
Publisher: Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Horticulture and Crop Production Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Genetics and Breeding

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