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Research article2023Peer reviewedOpen access

Assessment of an Electric Vehicle Drive Cycle in Relation to Minimised Energy Consumption with Driving Behaviour: The Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Its Suburbs

Mamo, Tatek; Gebresenbet, Girma; Gopal, Rajendiran; Yoseph, Bisrat


Battery electric vehicles (BEV) are suitable alternatives for achieving energy independence and meeting the criteria for reducing greenhouse emissions in the transportation sector. Evaluating their performance and energy consumption in the real-data driving cycle (DC) is important. The purpose of this work is to develop a BEV DC for the interlinked urban and suburban route of Addis Ababa (AA) in Ethiopia. In this study, a new approach of micro-trip random selection-to-rebuild with behaviour split (RSBS) was implemented, and its effectiveness was compared via the k-means clustering method. When comparing the statistical distribution of velocity and acceleration with measured real data, the RSBS cycle shows a minimum error of 2% and 2.3%, respectively. By splitting driving behaviour, aggressive drivers were found to consume more energy because of frequent panic stops and subsequent acceleration. In braking mode, coast drivers were found to improve the regenerative braking possibility and efficiency, which can extend the range by 10.8%, whereas aggressive drivers could only achieve 3.9%. Also, resynthesised RSBS with the percentage of behaviour split and its energy and power consumption were compared with standard cycles. A significant reduction of 14.57% from UDDS and 8.9% from WLTC-2 in energy consumption was achieved for the AA and its suburbs DC, indicating that this DC could be useful for both the city and suburbs.


battery electric vehicle; drive cycle selection; driver behaviour; energy consumption; range extension; suburbs DC

Published in

World Electric Vehicle Journal
2023, Volume: 14, number: 11, article number: 302
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Energy Systems

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