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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Mango headspace volatiles trigger differential responses of the mango fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra and its parasitoids

Miano, Raphael Njurai; Dekker, Teun; Rohwer, Egmont; Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Ndlela, Shepard; Yusuf, Abdullahi Ahmed; Cheseto, Xavier; Mohamed, Samira A.

Abstract

Before the introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to sub-Saharan Africa, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) was economically the most important pest in mango farming. Its native natural enemy, the solitary parasitoid Psyttalia cosyrae (Wilkinson), played a crucial role in C. cosyra bio-control, later complemented by the exotic parasitoids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius arisanus (Sonan) among Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems. To understand the in situ mango - C. cosyra -parasitoid tritrophic interaction, we assessed the responses of the fruit fly and the three parasitoids to headspace volatiles from various mango conditions. These conditions included non -infested mature unripe mangoes, C. cosyra -infested mangoes, 7th- and 9th -day postinfestation mangoes, non -infested ripe mangoes of three varieties (Kent, Apple, and Haden), and clean air (blank). We also compared the fruit fly ' s performance in the mango varieties and identified the chemical profiles of mango headspace volatiles. Ceratitis cosyra was attracted to both infested and non -infested mangoes (66 - 84 % of responsive C. cosyra ) and showed superior performance in Kent mango (72.1 % of the 287 puparia recovered) compared to Apple and Haden varieties. Fopius arisanus displayed a stronger attraction to the volatiles of C. cosyra -infested mangoes (68 - 70 %), while P. cosyrae and D. longicaudata were significantly attracted to the 9thday post -infestation mangoes (68 - 78 %) compared to non -infested mango volatiles. Gas chromatography -mass spectroscopy showed substantial quantitative and qualitative differences in volatile profiles among mango treatments. Esters predominated in non -infested ripe, 7th- and 9th -day post -infestation mangoes, while monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were most dominant in the other treatments. The in situ experiments underscored varying preferences of the species for mango headspace volatiles and their subsequent treatments. These results provide valuable insights for further exploration, specifically in identifying the key volatiles responsible for species responses, to facilitate the development of applicable selective semiochemicals for managing species of African fruit fly.

Keywords

Tree-attached mango; Tritrophic interaction; Parasitoids; Psyttalia cosyrae; GC-MS; Semiochemical

Published in

Heliyon
2024, Volume: 10, number: 9, article number: e30068
Publisher: CELL PRESS