Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Understanding veterinary drug shop workers' knowledge and practices to identify drivers of antibiotic use in Vietnamese livestock farms

Nohrborg, Sandra; Nguyen-Thi, Thinh; Xuan, Huyen Nguyen; Hai, Yen Luu Thi; Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Jaerhult, Josef D.; Magnusson, Ulf


Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a One Health issue and a major threat to animal and human health. Antibiotic use (ABU) drives AMR development, and several hotspots for ABU, and AMR, in livestock have been identified in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. There are often multiple drivers of ABU at farms, and to identify all of them there is a need to look beyond farm level. Objectives: The overall aim of this study was to identify routines and/or competencies, related to antibiotic sales, among veterinary drug shop workers that may be improved in order to decrease the medically non-rational use of antibiotics in livestock production. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted at 50 veterinary drug shops in northern Vietnam. Results: Results showed high education and knowledge levels. According to the respondents, antibiotic treatment advice was almost always provided to the farmers, and the recommended treatment was most commonly based on recommendations for the specific disease. However, farmers had almost never had their animals properly diagnosed. Antibiotics were the most sold drug category, penicillins being the most common. Several broad-spectrum antibiotics were also quite frequently sold. Further, >50% of respondents recommended antibiotics for disease prevention. Conclusions: Even though education and knowledge levels might be high, several challenges can prevent drug shop workers from contributing to more prudent ABU at farms, for example, lack of proper diagnosis, commercial interests and individual farmer motives, often in combination with poor compliance to regulations.


anti-bacterial agents; antibiotic sales; drug resistance; livestock; veterinary pharmacy; Vietnam

Published in

Veterinary Medicine and Science
2024, Volume: 10, number: 4, article number: e1502
Publisher: WILEY