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Research article2024Peer reviewedOpen access

Barriers and enablers of digital extension services’ adoption among smallholder farmers: the case of Cambodia, the Philippines and Vietnam

Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Chou, Phanith; Dacuyan, Flordeliz B.; et al.


Digital Extension Services (DES) could help smallholder farmers access science-based information to boost agricultural output and resource efficiency. Gaining insight into the factors influencing farmers' use of digital extension services was essential for executing behaviour change. A total of 937 farmers from Cambodia, the Philippines, and Vietnam were chosen as the sample for the study. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework by utilising a structural equation model. The findings showed a range of concerns pertaining to farmers' attitudes and actions regarding the use of digital extension services. Subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, and farmers' perceived usefulness had a favourable and significant impact on the uptake of digital extension services. Research has shown that both perceived risks and household wealth have a favourable impact on adoption rates. However, it is important to note that barriers and enablers differ throughout the three nations in Southeast Asia due to variations in culture, customs, norms, and socioeconomic factors. The paper presents a strategy to enhance farmers' engagement in DES technology by enhancing digital infrastructure, facilitating farmer access to hardware devices through government subsidies or private sector assistance, ensuring equitable access for women and youth, and organising additional training for key stakeholders.


Adoption; challenges; opportunities; digital extension

Published in

International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability
2024, Volume: 22, number: 1, article number: 2368351