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Research article2007Peer reviewedOpen access

Seedling establishment and growth after direct seeding with Pinus sylvestris: Effects of seed type, seed origin, and seeding year

Wennstrom U, Bergsten U, Nilsson JE


The early effects of seed type, seed origin, and seeding year on seedling emergence, survival, and growth after one to four years was quantified and examined. Two experimental series of Scots pine located at 61 degrees N and 64 degrees N and six orchard seed lots and six stand seed lots of adequate geographical origins in each series were used. Both series were replicated at five sites for up to five years. On average, orchard seed lots had 16% and 12% higher seedling emergence, in relation to sown germinable seeds, than stand seed lots in the northern and southern series. The survival from year I to year 4 was also higher for orchard seedlings than for stand seedlings; there was a 77% and 72% survival rate in the northern series and a 58% and 49% survival rate in the southern series for orchard and stand seedlings respectively. On average, after four years orchard seedlings were 26% taller in the northern series and 13% taller in the southern series. The gain in height growth for the orchard seeds was positive at all seeding years, at all sites, and at all seedling ages. If survival was calculated to the height of a four-year-old seedling, the survival of orchard seedlings increased by 3% in the northern and 1% in the southern series as the result of the higher growth of orchard seedlings. Using orchard seeds resulted in 6 percent units higher growth gain when the clear cuts were regenerated with direct seeding than with plants using the same seed material. Changes in the ranking of seed lots and seed types at different sites and seeding years for seedling emergence is an effect of external factors such as grazing and foraging that cannot be related directly to the tested factors

Published in

Silva Fennica
2007, Volume: 41, number: 2, pages: 299-314