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Conference abstract, 2008

Ammonia treatment of hatchery waste for elimination of avian flu and other RNA-firuses: treatment recommendations

Emmoth, E; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, J; Albihn, A; Belak, Sandor


Hatchery waste (HW) consists mainly of egg shells and non-hatched eggs and it may contain pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. viruses. According to the regulation (EC) 1774/2002, which lays down health rules for animal by-products not intended for human consumption, HW needs sanitation treatment. This can be achieved e.g. through liming, a common method in Sweden to disinfect HW; however, liming leads to unsuitable working conditions and is technically complicated, e.g. due to the high pH (>12) respective formation of sediments. Ammonia sanitation of biowaste uses ammonia (aq) or urea (s) (1). Free ammonia (NH3) is the active substance and is present at pH values >8. Further, the ammonia treatment contributes to the agricultural fertiliser value of the biowaste, as it persists during the treatment. Four RNA viruses and one RNA bacteriophage were investigated. These were influenza A virus (AIV), strain H5N3, isolated from duck at SVA; Feline infectious peritoneitis virus (FIPV), strain DF2; Feline calicivirus (FCV), strain ATCC 2280; Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (PI-3), strain 1878/88, isolated at SVA; bacteriophage MS2, strain ATCC 15597-B1. MS2 was tested to evaluate its usage as a monitoring model for virus inactivation. Hatchery waste was spiked with virus and phage, thereafter ammonia was added to a concentration of 0.25-0.75 % w/w and kept at different temperatures. The inactivation was monitored by analysis of viable virus. Viruses were analysed by an end-point titration method through cell culture cytopathic effect using MDCK cells (AIV), FCWF cells (FIPV and FCV) and TB cells (PI-3), and the virus titres were calculated according to the Spearmann Kärber formula (2). The number of the bacteriophages was determined by using the double agar layer method, where the Salmonella Enterica strain WG49 was used as the host bacterium. The results showed that an added concentration of 0.5% w/w ammonia (free ammonia about 0.3% w/w) inactivated all viruses investigated in treatment at 15ºC. Furthermore, the inactivation rates of MS2 were always lower than the viruses, thus bacteriophage MS2 could be used as a conservative indicator for virus inactivation

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6th Ramiran conference