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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2009

Precursor and Solvent Effects in the Nonhydrolytic Synthesis of Complex Oxide Nanoparticles for Bioimaging Applications by the Ether Elimination (Bradley) Reaction

Pazik Robert, Tekoriute Renata, Håkansson Peder Sebastian, Wiglusz Rafal, Strek Wieslaw, Seisenbaeva Gulaim, Gun'ko Yurii K, Kessler Vadim


Investigation of the solvent and alkoxide precursor effect on the nonhydrolytic sol–gel synthesis of oxide nanoparticles by means of an ether elimination (Bradley) reaction indicates that the best crystallinity of the resulting oxide particles is achieved on application of aprotic ketone solvents, such as acetophenone, and of smallest possible alkoxide groups. The size of the produced primary particles is always about 5 nm caused by intrinsic mechanisms of their formation. The produced particles, possessing the composition of natural highly insoluble minerals, are biocompatible. Optical characteristics of the perovskite complex oxide nanoparticles can easily be controlled through doping with rare earth cations; for example, by Eu3+. They can be targeted through surface modification by anchoring the directing biomolecules through a phosphate or phosphonate moiety. Testing of the distribution of Eu-doped BaTiO3 particles, modified with ethylphosphonic acid, demonstrates their facile uptake by the plants with active fluid transport, resulting finally in their enhanced concentration within the cell membranes


bioimaging ; crystal growth; nanoparticles; sol–gel processles; surface chemistry

Published in

Chemistry - A European Journal
2009, volume: 15, number: 28, pages: 6820-6826
Publisher: Wiley

Authors' information

Pazik, Robert
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Chemistry
Tekoriute, Renata
Håkansson, Peder Sebastian (Håkansson, Peder Sebastian)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Microbiology
Wiglusz, Rafal
Strek, Wieslaw
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Chemistry
Gun'ko, Yurii K.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Chemistry

UKÄ Subject classification

Animal and Dairy Science
Food Science
Veterinary Science

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