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Conference paper, 2009

Monitoring and Evaluation of Yellow Rust for Breeding Resistant Varieties of Wheat in Tajikistan

Rahmatov, M.; Eshonova, Z.; Ibrogimov, A.; Otambekova, M.; Khuseinov, B.; Muminjanov, H.; Morgounov, A.; Merker, A.; Hede, A.

Abstract

Wheat is an important food crop in Tajikistan. It occupies a prominent position in the farming system of the country. To cope with increasing food demand due to population growth, there is a need to increase wheat productivity. Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici is widespread in Tajikistan under irrigated and rainfed conditions and is considered the most damaging disease on the wheat crop. Yellow rust epidemics may totally destroy wheat plants and decrease wheat yield up to 60%. Since 2003, our research group has carried out monitoring and evaluation of rust diseases in breeding nurseries and farmer fields in different agro-climatic zones of Tajikistan. The results of the surveys and investigations showed the maximum yield loss was 60%, in 2003. In comparison with 2003, losses decreased to 5% in the period between 2004 and 2007. In 2008, yellow rust was not observed apart from sporadic occurrence of yellow rust recorded in all agro-ecological zones of Tajikistan. During this period, humidity was low, and the weather conditions in April and May were very dry. In the spring of 2009, the humidity was very high, but yellow rust infection was still low (about 10%) and the wheat crop was mainly damaged by leaf rust. The reduced occurrence of yellow rust might be due to the use of varieties and advanced lines that are resistant to yellow rust. Our results indicate that every year the percentage of wheat genotypes expressing resistance to yellow rust is increasing. Regional and International cooperation has been initiated with the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA IWWIP, and winter and facultative wheat nurseries have been sown in Tajikistan. Cooperation in wheat breeding and germplasm exchange has also been established with Oklahoma State University, USA. In this respect, segregating F2 population 319 nurseries from Oklahoma University are received for further selection in Tajikistan. A National Wheat Breeding Programme was initiated through the GTZ-CIMMYT Project “Regional Network on Wheat Variety Promotion and Seed Multiplication”, and currently continues as Sida Project “Support to Seed Industry Development in Tajikistan”. The germplasm used for the breeding programme of Tajikistan originated mainly from CIMMYT, ICARDA, Turkey, USA and Tajikistan. Several advanced lines have been selected by our research group and are annually tested in Preliminary Yield Trials, and the best advanced lines are submitted for official variety testing for release in Tajikistan. The advanced lines that have been selected for high yield, improved bread making quality and resistance to yellow rust and other diseases include: PRINA/STAR, SHARK/F4105W2.1, VORONA/KAUZ//1D13.1/MLT, CHEN/Aegilops squarosa/TAUS.RCN//3RAV and VORONA SNO79. Cvs Attila, Ziroat 70, Tacikar, Ormon, Sadokat, Iqbol, Oriyon, Chilgazi, Isfara, Yusufi and Vahdat, which were selected from IWWIP and ESWYT nurseries, are in official testing. Cvs Alex, Norman, Orman and Somoni were recently released.

Published in

Title: Meeting the Challenge of Yellow Rust in Cereal Crops : proceedings of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Regional Conferences on Yellow Rust in the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) Region
ISBN: 92-9127-273-6
Publisher: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

Conference

Fourth Regional Yellow Rust Conference for the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA)