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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2008

Micromorphology and topochemistry of extractives in Scots pine and Norway spruce thermomechanical pulps: a cytochemical approach

Fernando, Dinesh; Hafren, Jonas; Gustafsson, Jan; Daniel, Geoffrey


Due to the increasing demand for Norway spruce as prime raw material for high-yield pulping, recent interest has focused on Scots pine as an alternative. However, the intrinsic properties of Scots pine, particularly the high amounts of extractives and the fiber properties, have been considered a disadvantage for thermomechanical pulping. A study was therefore conducted on the variations in the spatial distribution and redistribution of lipophilic extractives in spruce and pine wood and thermomechanical pulp (TMP) using cytochemical staining methods and chemical analysis. Chemical analyses showed chips from pine thinnings and sawmill stabs to contain three to live and two to three times, respectively, more extractives than found in spruce; in particular, the amount of triglycerides differed significantly. Results from staining techniques on the abundance and distribution of extractives (i.e., fats) between pine and spruce correlated with amounts detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. Cytochemical observations revealed information pertaining to species-specific distribution and redistribution of extractives among TMP fines and fibers and indicated the presence of a molecular film of extractives. Results indicate that the high concentrations of extractives in pine ray parenchyma are released during TMP processing and are redistributed onto the surfaces of the pulps, negatively affecting energy usage during primary refining.


cytochemical staining; extractives; Norway spruce; Scots pine; thermomechanical pulp fibers

Published in

Journal of Wood Science
2008, Volume: 54, number: 2, pages: 134-142

      SLU Authors

    • Fernando, Dinesh

      • Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
      • Hafrén, Jonas

        • Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
        • Daniel, Geoffrey

          • Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

        UKÄ Subject classification

        Forest Science

        Publication Identifiers


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