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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2009

Relationships between observed and perceived deviations from normative work procedures

Lindroos, Ola


Deviations from anticipated courses of events are often associated with accidents, while the effects of deviations that decrease productivity but do not obviously lead to human injury are less clear. A systemic approach to production and safety is introduced, and it is proposed that production deviations have effects that may lead to safety violations and personal injury. In addition, the relationship between observed and perceived production deviations from 12 senior (60-79 years old) males' routine work using three firewood processing machines is analysed. For simple machine work, perceived deviations were positively related to observed deviations per work cycle and inversely correlated to the perception of work efficiency. For more complex machine work it was more difficult to match observers' and operators' perceptions of deviations. Despite challenges in the production deviation concept, this approach offers a holistic understanding of the performance of human-machine-environment systems and complements assessments of deviations from safe working practice.


production deviations; perception; human error; equipment safety; firewood

Published in

2009, volume: 52, number: 12, pages: 1487-1500
Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management

UKÄ Subject classification

Renewable Bioenergy Research
Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)