Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2003Peer reviewedOpen access

How hydrological and hydraulic conditions affect performance of ponds

Persson J, Wittgren HB


During the 1990s there has been a growing interest in (re)constructed wetlands and ponds for treatment of agricultural runoff, sewage water, and stormwater. Some of these facilities, however, are poorly designed in terms of hydrological and hydraulic performance, which strongly affects their treatment capacity. This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge regarding pond hydraulics in terms of effective volume ratio and dispersion. The importance of these parameters is demonstrated by modelling of nitrogen removal in 13 ponds of different design. The results show that effective volume ratio has a clear influence, which increases when removal rate coefficients increase, while dispersion is of minor importance for removal efficiency. Finally, the concept of hydraulic efficiency is discussed in the light of these results. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved


design; efficiency; hydraulic; nitrogen; performance; ponds; Tank-in-series model; wetlands

Published in

Ecological Engineering
2003, Volume: 21, number: 4-5, pages: 259-269

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Fish and Aquacultural Science
    Landscape Architecture

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)