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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2004

Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota

Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Klironomos JN, Setala H, van der Putten WH, Wall DH


All terrestrial ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground components that interact to influence community- and ecosystem-level processes and properties. Here we show how these components are closely interlinked at the community level, reinforced by a greater degree of specificity between plants and soil organisms than has been previously supposed. As such, aboveground and belowground communities can be powerful mutual drivers, with both positive and negative feedbacks. A combined aboveground-belowground approach to community and ecosystem ecology is enhancing our understanding of the regulation and functional significance of biodiversity and of the environmental impacts of human-induced global change phenomena

Published in

2004, volume: 304, number: 5677, pages: 1629-1633

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology
Klironomos, John N
Setälä, Heikki
Wall, Diana H
Bardgett, Richard D
van der Putten, Wim H

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)