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Research article2010Peer reviewed

In vitro postwarming viability of vitrified porcine embryos: Effect of cryostorage length

Sanchez-Osorio, J.; Cuello, C.; Gil, M. A.; Parrilla, I.; Alminana, C.; Caballero, I.; Roca, J.; Vazquez, J. M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, H.; Martinez, E. A.


Porcine embryos, which had been vitrified and stored in liquid nitrogen for up to three yr, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the influence of duration of storage on their in vitro viability post-warming. All embryos were vitrified (OPS or SOPS) and warmed (three-step or direct warming) using procedures that resulted in the same in vitro survival, hatching rates, and numbers of cells. Therefore, embryo data obtained using the different procedures were pooled according to their developmental stage as morulae (n = 571) or blastocysts (n = 797) and to the length of their storage in liquid nitrogen: a) 1-9 d; b) 10-30 d; c) 31-90 d; d) 1-3 yr. Non-vitrified embryos of corresponding developmental stages were used as a fresh control group (n = 280). Survival and hatching rates were evaluated after in vitro culture to assess embryo viability. The total number of cells was counted in the resulting viable blastocysts as an indicator of quality. A total of 1,648 fresh and vitrified embryos were analyzed. In vitro survival and hatching rates, but not the number of cells, differed significantly between vitrified morulae and their fresh counterparts irrespective of the duration of cryostorage. Length of storage in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) did not influence in vitro viability among different groups of vitrified/warmed morulae nor embryos at the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, duration of storage in LN2 has no effect on the post-warming viability of porcine embryos vitrified at morula or blastocyst stage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Porcine; Embryo; Vitrification; Storage; Cryopreservation

Published in

2010, Volume: 74, number: 3, pages: 486-490

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Veterinary Science
    Animal and Dairy Science

    Publication identifier


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