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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2011

Activity patterns of predator and prey: a simultaneous study of GPS-collared wolves and moose

Eriksen, Ane; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Andreassen, Harry P.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Gundersen, Hege; Liberg, Olof; Linnell, John; Milner, Jos M.; Pedersen, Hans C.; Sand, Hakan; Solberg, Erling J.; Storaas, Torstein


We studied the simultaneous activity patterns of a breeding wolf, Canis lupus, pair and five adult moose, Alces alces, cows from April to November 2004 in a wolf territory in southeastern Norway. All study animals were GPS collared, and we used a total of 8297 fixes to analyse their temporal activity patterns. We examined the daily activity rhythm of the two species and how this varied seasonally through the study period, and investigated the association in activity patterns between the two species. Wolf activity peaked at dawn. The distance moved per time unit and the linearity of the movement were higher in wolves than in moose, but both species showed a decrease in these variables in June, coinciding with the denning and calving seasons. With the exception of the summer months when the activity of wolves and moose was limited by the raising of offspring, we found no correlation between the temporal activities of the two species. Hence, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the wolves and moose in Scandinavia have adjusted to each other's activity patterns. We discuss the results in light of the relative density of the two species and the intensive human harvest of moose, and hypothesize that synchronicity of predator-prey activity patterns may be ratio dependent. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


activity pattern; Alces alces; Canis lupus; GPS collar; moose; predation risk; predator avoidance; wolf

Published in

Animal Behaviour
2011, Volume: 81, number: 2, pages: 423-431

      SLU Authors

    • Liberg, Olof

      • Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
      • Sand, Håkan

        • Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

      UKÄ Subject classification

      Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use

      Publication identifier


      Permanent link to this page (URI)